Relationships after Tello et al. (2009), Ohlson et al. (2008), Ericson et al. (2006), and others.
Several clades within Tyranni are clearly established: Pipridae (manakins), Tityridae (tityras), Cotingidae (cotingas), and Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers). But relationships among them are contradictory in different analyses, and no resolution is strongly supported in any analysis (Barker et al. 2002, 2004; Johansson et al. 2002; Chesser 2004, Ohlson et al. 2008, Tello et al. 2009). However, the last two references, especially, have made considerable progress in consolidating these four clades (though some species have changed allegiance) and every species but one can now be placed in its proper group with confidence. That species, Calyptura cristata, remains a mystery. Until recently thought extinct, it has never been genetically sampled, and it has been linked at various times to tyrannids, tityrids, cotingids, and piprids.
The group here called Tyranni has been given various other, though similar, names by other workers, Tyrannides and Tyrannida being the commonest. The distinctions are arbitrary.
|Rights holder/Author||John Harshman, Tree of Life web project|